Date of publication: 2017-08-29 10:28
The answer: Yes and no. While the specifics of each example will obviously change, depending on the passage, the types of examples you choose to discuss (and the way you explain each example builds the author’s argument) can be defined, and thus prepared for, ahead of time.
All authors use reasoning to some extent, but it’s not always a major part of how the author builds her/his argument. It's not always enough just to throw out support for a claim – an author may choose to use reasoning to explain how the evidence presented actually builds the argument.
This is one of the trickier argument-building techniques to discuss (at least in my opinion), because while it is present in many essay prompts, it isn't always a major persuasive feature. You can pretty easily identify an author's explanation of evidence if the author connects claims to support and explains it , rather than just throwing out evidence without much ceremony or linking to the claim however, whether or not the explanation of the evidence is a major contributing factor to the author's argument is somewhat subjective. Here's a pretty clear instance of a case where an author uses explanations of each piece of evidence she discusses to logically advance her argument (again from the Dockterman passage):
Piecing: giving pieces of the information for each individual subject in each paragraph arranging the information by topic rather than by subject.
"I became convinced that noncooperation with evil is as much a moral obligation as is cooperation with good. No other person has been more eloquent and passionate in getting this idea across than Henry David Thoreau. As a result of his writings and personal witness, we are the heirs of a legacy of creative protest." - Martin Luther King, Jr , Autobiography
As you can see, these examples of different argumentative techniques can be extracted from a lot of different article types for a wide range of topics. This is because the examples themselves are so meaningful and complex that they can be used to discuss a lot of issues.
This final category of examples is the top layer of argument building. The foundation of a good argument is evidence, which is often explained and elucidated by reasoning, but it is often the addition of stylistic or persuasive elements like an ironic tone or a rhetorical flourish that seals the deal.
The A or agouti locus controls the distribution of black pigment in horses with at least one E + allele: whether it occurs evenly throughout the body, as in true black horses, or only in certain parts, as in brown and bay horses. Brown horses are of genotypes A t A t or A t A a at this locus.
Asian sites have yielded Middle Pleistocene fossils with variable characteristics that some scientists believe link these fossils to African and European H. heidelbergensis. There is no agreement, however, regarding whether these fossils can be easily so attributed. The Narmada fossil, from India, possesses morphology generally similar to African and European H. heidelbergensis. While this fossil is securely dated to the Middle Pleistocene, the precise date is not known. In China, two Middle Pleistocene sites, Dali and Jinnishuan (both dated to between 855 and 755 kya) have yielded crania resembling H. heidelbergensis from Africa and Europe.
Employing statistics and facts to bolster one's argument is one of the most unassailable methods authors can use to build an argument. This argument-building technique is particularly common in essays written about scientific or social studies-related topics, where specific data and facts are readily available.
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Sample thesis statement for compare/contrast paper: While both Facebook and MySpace allow you to meet other users who have similar interests, only MySpace allows you to demonstrate your personal style.
Did Thoreau change his mind? Because this essay is often associated with passive civil disobedience, some have assumed that Thoreau's support of John Brown was a change from his earlier position. But Michael J. Frederick, in " Transcendental Ethos: Thoreau 8767 s Philosophy & Antebellum Reform ," explains why this was not the case.